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With the fall season upon us, students, their teachers, and their principals have recently returned to school. In the School District of Philadelphia, each of those groups face immense uncertaintyabout the future. As do students and educators across the United States and Mexico. Despite these myriad challenges, librarians want to offer each group the same support for excellence in local term papers that we always have.
Let us take a tour of the library services, collections, and expertise we have to offer which support students as they take their first steps into the conversations of the global scholarly community:
Encyclopedias and other reference books
By now, most students probably are savvy enough to start their research into a topic about which they know nothing by consulting an encyclopedia. While the open and democratic editorial structure of Wikipedia is inspiring in its breadth, we often see students use it uncritically and in an unsophisticated way. Even those who know not to plagiarize brazenly from Wikipedia, don’t know how difficult it is to find an appropriate way to make use of its crowd-sourced articles in their writing. Librarians can teach your students to see Wikipedia articles in their rough context as akin to the research paper itself. Just like student writing, it’s only as good as the citations and the clarity of argument, and useful only within in a limited extent. In other words, at its best Wikipedia approaches the research and writing quality of professionally edited encyclopedia. However, quality can dip below what would get most high school students an F if submitted as a short reaction paper.
Electronic encyclopedias represent only the tip of the encyclopedic iceberg. At the Central Library (and most branches), the various departments maintain deep print collections of discipline specific encyclopedias which will give your students the best background on a topic they’re considering for exploration. Through the articles within, students will likely find citations to chase. Or they will encounter a sensible framework by which to understand the paramaters of conversations on a topic. Most disciplines also have their own additional “reference works” that assist the researcher beyond basic encyclopedic overviews, but please come pay us a visit to consult your friendly librarians in order to learn to use them.
Newspapers, historic and current
At this point, some savvy students will understand that when they Google a current events topic, some of the results will come from newspapers, especially if they search using Google News. Unfortunately, the surface web being but the shallow surface, students are only going to find content from newspapers not behind paywalls. Or worse, they’ll find articles from third-rate papers with audiences or communities not relevant to their topic.
Fortunately, the Free Library subscribes to several robust newspaper databases offering full-text paywall-free access to more authoritative sources in the global press. In some cases, such as the Philadelphia Inquirer or Daily News our subscriptions include well over 30 years worth of each papers’ publishing run. In other cases, we have database to cover historical newspapers from the colonial period through reconstruction. What about the gaps between 1880 and 1980? In those cases, departments at the Central Branch often have “clippings files” as do some excellent local university special collection libraries. These verticle file indexes are collections of articles cut out from newspapers and arranged by subject matter, often with other pamphlets and historical ephemera. Or in other cases we’ve maintained electronic or print indexes to the stories appearing in the news. Without these tools, there is no way to access "history's first draft".
Academic Journals and their indexes
Perhaps the main reason to teach students the skills of researching and writing term papers is that it is the journeyman vehicle by which students take their first steps into the global scholarly conversation. If high school students don’t learn the role of peer-reviewed journals in those conversations, they will not be prepared to enter college. It's crucial that teachers assigning research papers involve a librarian in teaching these skills to the college bound.
Even those not destined for college need to understand from where knowledge about our world comes. It emerges from a scientific process of inquiry as mediated by peers in a tug between consensus and new discoveries. Your students might find articles from the scholarly press, but only the tiniest sliver of this publishing world, by searching the free and open surface-web. The Free Library of Philadelphia can introduce them to a host of article databases which will open up a far richer world of writing on assigned topics. Or if Google Scholar has led them to a decent citation, let the Free Library help them avoid paying outrageous article fees through a combination of our database subscriptions and Interlibrary Loan:
Books, and the good old Dewey Decimal Classification System
Chances are without the advantages of access to school libraries or school librarians students have not been introduced to one of the tools that makes a professionally run library so powerful: Classification. Our arrangement of books on the shelves is a robust faceted system that allows the entirety of human knowledge published in book (and other forms) to be discoverable in increasingly specific subdivisions and specialties. That’s a mouthful. The bottom line is: The discovery of one book on a topic usually leads to the discovery of other useful books next to it on the shelves. The Dewey Decimal Classification System provides the addresses that make this map of human understanding of the world sensible. The serendipitous discoveries of browsing shelves arranged this way are not to be underestimated or fully superseded by hypertextuality or the machine algorithms of the Internet.
Browsing, however, is insufficient. Students also must learn to use a catalog to harness the power of ideas both across disciplines and across library collections. Not only is every branch of the Free Library of Philadelphia linked by a free system of “intralibrary loans”, but rather the majority of English language libraries are linked by a free system called “Interlibrary Loan.” A well-designed course will give students who will be writing research papers ample and early warning that they should make Interlibrary Loan requests early in the semester, so that their books are available in time for the assignment.
Most students also don’t know that many books are indexed. Thus they are unaware that the nature of the assignment might not require that they read the whole work, but rather that they use the index to find the relevant sections which address their own topic. As long as they understand that context matters and learn to read efficiently within a work, they need not be defeated by hundreds of pages of text. Without these skills, it’s a safe bet they haven’t been introduced to bibliographies, chasing notes, or any myriad of other useful appendixes at the back of the book.
What can we say about the surface web, that won’t be dated the moment we publish this posting? Plenty! When we talk to students, we try to teach them to think like a scholar: Who published this? How credible of an authority is this author? Which perspectives do they represent? Who is the audience? When was this published or updated? And for what purposes?
Search engines evolve as does the ICANN domain naming system, but for the moment, many students are unaware that they can build advance searches that limit results to specific top level domains. Do they know that you the teacher will respect a government publication over a blog post by an amateur? Or that the non-profit industrial complex also produces interesting reports and perspectives, but the challenges of identifying bias are greater? Or finally, some open publishing in academia can be a fruitful source of authoritative information.
Students who think they’re experts in searching for what they want, don’t know that they are not experts at searching for what you want: a well-understood and appropriate source for citations within a larger student-driven analysis or voice. We teach how to search the surface web as an expert would, much the way we teach students how to search the scholarly deep web. Just ask us.
First and foremost, students should know that the libraries, that librarians lovingly cultivate, are designed to be liberating spaces for curious independent learners while simultaneously opening a window on the totality of human achievements in attempting to understand our universe and ourselves. Students or former students who may otherwise feel constrained by the increasingly narrowing focus of schools will find that libraries truly are welcoming people’s universities. Librarians are committed to their mission: to advance literacy, guide learning, and inspire curiosity for all residents of their communities. We are eager for you to join us in the thrilling wonder of discovery.
Principals should know that municipal librarians (professors in these people’s universities) can be available to visit faculty meetings to discuss integrating the above broad set of resources into the local curriculum. We are expert teachers of information literacy (to staff as well as students) embedded within each community and so are worth inviting. They should also know that it is possible to arrange for class visits to the Free Library of Philadelphia’s extensive system for the purposes of supporting student learning, improving school projects and attending the additional enrichment programming that we organize. Just ask. One word of caution though: all of this is no substitute for certified School Library Media Specialists (I.E. Teacher-Librarians) who are responsible for the K-12 library curriculum. The public library cannot fully replace what ought to be a cumulative 13 years of library curricula.
Teachers should know that librarians are available for consultations on the assignment of the best print and electronic materials relevant to your lesson plans. We also can guide you and your students in utilizing the best methods and practices in literacy, discovery, project based learning, and research. You can visit our libraries, and often we can visit your classrooms. We'd especially like to talk with you prior to assigning summer reading. Again, Just ask.
To all students and pedagogues, we wish you much strength and success in the face of the moral, political, and structural crises you are facing this year.
The Maker Ed Initiative, embedded in five Free Library locations in some of Philadelphia’s most underserved communities, is mentoring teens and youth in a variety of maker activities from magnetic races to e-fashion. Our goal is to celebrate and nurture creativity with the aid of technological tools. Instead of having a competition at the end of the summer, we are having a celebration to bring youth from the five sites together to share what they’ve created with each other, with their families, and with the Maker community at large. We’re opening up the celebration to 50 participants of all ages and skill levels to share what they make – apply today to be part of it at celebration.makerjawn.org!
In addition to these daily Maker workshops, the Free Library has teamed up with the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education and PennDesign on the Digital Media and Learning Competition-winning Connected Messages program. We wanted to develop a project that had several components: would involve kids working collaboratively to create a modular work of art; would be affordable and easy to implement; would be both physical and digital and have an interactive element (some sort of “magic”); and be meaningful and relevant to youth. Youth are working across five sites to create five 4’x4’ physical murals that are comprised of individual 5” square boxes, with an LED in the center. Their box’s top (made of clear acetate) is then decorated to describe their own perspective on the City of Brotherly Love and Sisterly Affection, and is backlit by the LED. All of the boxes are pinned to a DIY circuit board, which is connected to the internet through an electric imp. Each box, as well as each mural, has its own page on connected.ecrafting.org, where you can read about each creator, and control which boxes are lit.
At the McPherson Square Library, our theme is Community. Drew, the Maker Corps Member there, recalled getting the kids to think about their community before he brought out the colored sharpies and LEDs:
“The next step was to discuss the theme and talk about things that each of them thought of when they think of their community. It was a bit sad to hear their initial responses of “not safe”, “no good”, “staying inside and watching TV”. I wasn’t entirely shocked by these comments…I get to see what their community is like every day. I personally don’t live that far away, either, so at least from an adult’s perspective I know what it’s like. But I was able to get them to start discussing positive things. A lot of the positive emotions came from thoughts of family or statements like “I love my mom”. So we went with that. One of them wanted to make a box about recycling (not because the community is all that trash-conscious, but because it’s something he wanted to say he feels is important to making a community healthy).”
The youth went on to create nine boxes that day. The activity--in this case getting the kids to play with sharpies, copper tape, and LEDs--provided them with an opportunity to explore their own concepts of community. If this is what the maker movement can provide, we’re all in. Come celebrate and participate with us on August 17! Apply to be part of it at celebration.makerjawn.org.
Welcome to the second in a series of blog posts written by the teens participating in the WorkReady Philadelphia service learning program at the Free Library of Philadelphia! Each week, you’ll hear from one of our participants about the important work they’re doing over the summer as Literacy Coaches to support youth literacy development throughout the Free Library system. This week, Andria shares a fun activity that she led at the Roxborough Library!
By Andria B.
At my branch yesterday, we did an activity related to our Beach Day theme, which allowed the participating children to imagine traveling to any place that they want and sending someone a postcard from there.
We set up a stack of books about various places in the world for the children to use as reference when they drew the pictures on their postcards, and we also showed them examples of postcards from Philadelphia, Paris, and New Jersey made by PYN teens. The children utilized the books we prepared for them, and they sent postcards from Italy, Hawaii, Hollywood, and Disney World. Their postcards were addressed to their friends and family, which was very sweet.
Although we did not have as many participants as we expected, the activity was a success because the children had a lot of fun, and they even learned some facts about places around the world just by flipping through the books we set up!
Philadelphia Youth Network,
Children make travel postcards at Roxborough Library.
Do you love learning and DIY projects? Are you interested in the intersection and overlap of technology and creativity? You may already be a maker!
The Maker Movement generally refers to a subculture of people who are artists, tech enthusiasts, educators, crafters, designers, tinkerers, engineers, musicians – anyone with a passion for mixing what they do with technology and electronics in a hands-on way.
At five Free Library locations this summer, we’re diving into the maker movement with a grant from the Maker Ed Initiative. We hired five Maker Corps Members whose expertise ranges from chemistry to painting to metalsmith work. They mentor youth in how to “de-black-box” and creatively control the technology they use on a daily basis. For example, what started with lumps of play-doh at the Free Library Hot Spot at the Village of Arts and Humanities morphed into youth-designed competitive magnetic mazes that includes LEDs and buzzers. Youth were exposed to the history of mazes, and then developed characters, goals and storyline to articulate their creations (e.g., “The Legend of Grandma, featuring Grandpop”).
Perhaps the most exciting element of the maker movement is how it has the potential to affect out-of-school learning environments, like the library. We’re excited to see what sorts of things kids learn when they’re exposed to technology in a playful environment, and how different literacies can be deepened through mentorship, some lights, and some buzzers.
Read more about our daily workshops and locations at makerjawn.org, and stay tuned to hear more about ways to get involved with the Maker Movement this summer!
Welcome to the first in a series of blog posts written by the teens participating in the WorkReady Philadelphia service learning program at the Free Library of Philadelphia! Each week, you’ll hear from one of our participants about the important work they’re doing over the summer as Literacy Coaches to support youth literacy development throughout the Free Library system. This week, Janai shares her impressions of her first week on the job!
Last Week’s Training
By Janai N.
Last week, I officially started my new job with the Philadelphia Youth Network (PYN) working for the Free Library of Philadelphia. The branch I was assigned is in Eastwick. When I found out that I had training, I was extremely excited. However, when I showed up, my heart almost stopped. I couldn’t believe that I had been hired, and I was really nervous. I’m an introvert, so I have a hard time adjusting to situations in which there is a large group of people, and there were more than 100 who showed up for training just like me!
During the first half of the training, I received a TON of valuable information, such as what is good and bad touch and what to do when you’re taking pictures of kids. I also learned about Summer Reading and the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. One thing that stood out to me was that you could be a narrator for audiobooks in order to help people with disabilities. It touched my heart, and I am beginning to think about asking to become a narrator for those books.
After the morning half we had a break, and that was a bit tough for me. I didn’t know who to talk to, so I sat off to the side. Two people came over and they began to talk to me, so I felt a little better. Once break was over, we broke off into our small groups. I was placed in Group Seven, which included the teens who will be working in all of the Southwest Philadelphia library branches. In our small groups, we discovered that we would be working on a project that talks about how we are fighting illiteracy, so we decided to do a PowerPoint. For the rest of the week, the people in my group were assigned different slides and were given the duty to research on their slide topic. After last week, I began to open up some. I think that this is going to be a good summer!
Philadelphia Youth Network,