Dieses Harmonische Melodeÿen=Büchlein=Gehöret Jacob Kratz Sing schuler in der Hilltauner schule Geschrieben d 27ten Hornug Im Jahr 1823

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Dieses Harmonische Melodeÿen=Büchlein=Gehöret Jacob Kratz Sing schuler in der Hilltauner schule Geschrieben d 27ten Hornug Im Jahr 1823

Item Info

Item No: frkm048000
Title: Dieses Harmonische Melodeÿen=Büchlein=Gehöret Jacob Kratz Sing schuler in der Hilltauner schule Geschrieben d 27ten Hornug Im Jahr 1823
Creation Date: 2/27/1823
Scripts/Text: Fraktur; German script
Language: German
Weiser Number: 200
Physical Description: 24p.; 18mo; oblong format
Material: wrapper; laid paper; watercolor; tempera; ink; thread
Category: Tune Booklet (Notenbüchlein)
Media Type: Manuscripts
Source: Rare Book Department
Notes:

Accompanying Materials Laid or Tipped In:

One-eighth of a sheet of wove paper with following noted in pencil: 39 in a circle with an X through it; 48 in a circle; 19 in a square; 1823; JACOB KRATZ | HILLTOWN SCHOOL | FEBRUARY 27, 1823

Binding:

Stiff paper wrapper

Biographical Note:

Near the end of 1822, Jacob Oberholtzer sent a broadside to families in the Hilltown area announcing his intention to keep school in the Hunsperger (Hilltown) school house. He needed 25 students, and tuition per student was to be 2 cents per day. School was to start January 5, 1823 for a period of three months. Jacob Kratz must have been one of those students for his tune booklet indicates that it was made for him on February 27, 1823 while attending the Hilltown School.

Full Title Translation:

This Harmonious Tune Booklet Belongs to Jacob Kratz Singing Scholar in the Hilltown School Written the 27th February in the Year 1823

N. B. See also FLP B-19

Physical Description:
[1-2] 3 [4] 5-23 [23-24]
 


Notes:

Scope and Content:

Jacob Oberholtzer was raised in the Deep Run area, and probably was a student of David Kulp (1777-1834), who on October 25, 1803 made a Notenbüchlein (See Borneman Ms. 30) for a Jacob Oberholtzer, then a student and singing scholar at the Deep Run School in Bedminster Township, Bucks County. It is quite possible that this is the same Jacob Oberholtzer who kept school in the Hunsperger or Hilltown School from January 5, 1823 to about April 5, 1823, and who on February 27, 1823 made the tune booklet for Jacob Kratz, a student and singing scholar at the Hilltown School.

There are a total of 71 hymn titles with music incipits: 66 are written in the style of Johann Adam Eyer (1755-1837), and his student David Kulp (1777-1834), i.e. 4 hymn titles with music incipits to a page, use of soprano clef, key and time signatures, and note values given in half and whole notes. The music incipits for hymn titles [31] Nun ruhen alle Wälder and [32] Nun sich der Tag geendet hat are written in shape notes. This is also true for Nos. [69] Vergangen ist Die nacht, [70] Mein Gott das herz ich bringe Dir and [71] Heute gehen wir voll freude. More than one hand entered the hymn titles and music incipits.

This tune booklet demonstrates the two worlds in which Pennsylvania German children and their teachers existed, and points towards their assimilation into American culture. Representative of their Germanic roots, we find on the one hand that the majority of hymn titles are from the Marburg Hymnal, Das kleine Davidische Psalterspiel Der Kinder Zions, and Das neue und verbesserte Gesangbuch...vor die Evangelisch=Reformirten Gemeinen and copied out in Fraktur, and German script, along with the tune incipits in traditional notation. On the other hand, their exposure to the American way of life prompted them to begin to use g-clef, as well as a new form of musical notation, i.e. shape notes, a system introduced in 1801 to facilitate congregation and community singing, and soon to become a popular teaching device in American singing schools.

Title Description:

Hand-drawn; hand-colored; hand-lettered. The text in Fraktur and German script, along with calligraphic flourishes, is in the center, and flanked on either side by colorful blooms springing from thick leafy stalks. The leaves are different in shape, and are separated from each other by red and black squiggly lines. A simple decorated border frames the entire title page.

Tunebooks in General:

The idea of creating such a booklet to teach children the rudiments of musical notation so that they could learn to sing the melodies used in the hymns at church service seems to have been Johann Adam Eyer’s (1755-1837).  The hymnals used by their parents contained no music, but only the hymn verses with the indication “Mel.” and the title of the hymn tune to which the congregation would sing the text. The metrics, and topic of the poetry usually determined which melodies were chosen.

Eyer’s concept was a practical and useful one, and inspired many other teachers to create tune booklets for their students in which only the melody line of frequently used hymn tunes was written out. Each scholar had a booklet, usually 10.2 x 16.5 cm in size. The teacher created a title page describing the purpose of the booklet, and containing the name of the student, the school attended, and the date of the title’s creation. The empty spaces on the title page were filled in with flowers, birds, and other elements common to Pennsylvania German decorated Fraktur. These titles are absolutely beautiful, and probably inspired the singing scholar to greater endeavors as he learned how to read music and sing the tunes that either the instructor or he would copy into the booklet.

The “singing schools” or singing classes flourished in Bucks, Lehigh, Montgomery, Chester and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania from about 1787 to 1845. Singing became a part of the school curriculum, and “singing schools” became popular.
 


Associated Names: Oberholtzer, Jacob
Provenance: Henry S., 1870-1955;
Kratz, Jacob

Bibliography:

 Michael Bentz. Die Neue Harmonie, oder Eine neue Sammlung von Kirchen=Musik; enthaltend viele Musikalische=Stücke und Kirchen=Melodien, welche noch nie im Druck erschienen, und manche die neulich für dieses Werk componiret worden sind; zusammengetragen aus den berühmtesten Autoren neuerer Zeit, nebst hinlänglichem Unterricht für Singschulen. Gettysburg: Gettysburg Theological Seminary by Henry C. Neinstedt, Printer, [n.d.].

Johann F. Eyer and Isaac Gerhart. Choral Harmonie Enthaltend Kirchen=Melodien, Die bey allen religions-Verfassungen gebräuchlich, auf vier Stimmen gesezt, und mit einigen musikalischen Stücken nebst hinreichenden Unterricht versehen, eingerichtet zur Übung der Jugend und zum Gebruch des öffentlichen Gottesdienstes, welches ohne und mit der Orgel kann gebraucht werden, wann ein Organist die Regeln der Musick beobachtet. Harrisburg: John Wyeth, 1822.

Marburger Gesang=Buch zur Uebung der Gottseligkeit in 649 Christlichen und Trostreichen Psalmen und Gesängen Hrn. D. Martin Luthers. und anderer Gottseliger Lehrer, Ordentlich in XII. Theile verfasset, Und mit nöthigen Registern auch einer Verzeichniß versehen, unter welche Titul die im Anhang befindlichen Lieder gehörig: Auch zur Beförderung des so Kirchen= als Privat= Gottesdienstes, Mit erbaulichen Morgen= Abend = Buß= Beicht= und Communion=Gebätlein vermehret.  Germanton, Gedruckt und zu finden bey Christoph Saur, 1762.

Das neue und verbesserte Gesangbuch, worinnen die Psalmen Davids samt einer Sammlung alter und neuer Geistreicher Lieder, sowohl für privat und Hausandachten, als auch für den öffentlichen Gottesdienst enthalten sind. Nebst einen Anhang des Heydelbergischen Catechismus, wie auch erbaulicher Gebäter. Nach einem Synodal Schluß zusammen getragen und eingerichtet vor die Evangelisch=Reformirten Gemeinen in den Vereinigten Staaten von America. Zweyte Auflage. Germantaun: Gedruckt bey Michael Billmeyer, 1799.

H. Harbaugh, D. D., and D. Y. Heisler, A. M. The Fathers of the German Reformed Church in Europe and America. Lancaster: J. M. Westhaeffer, 1872, vol. 4, 94-106.

Die kleine geistliche Harfe der Kinder Zions, oder auserlesene geistreiche Gesänge allen wahren heilsbegierigen Säuglingen der Weisheit, insonderheit aber allen Christlichen Gemeinden des Herrn zum Dienst und Gebrauch mit Fleiss zusammen getragen, und in gegenwärtiger Form und Ordnung gestellt, nebst einm dreyfachen Register. Erste Auflage. Auf Verordnung der Mennonisten Gemeinde. Germantaun: Gedruckt bey Michael Billmeyer, 1803.

Mary Jane Lederach Hershey. “The Notenbüchlein Tradition in Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Community Schools” in Cory M. Amsler, ed., Bucks County Fraktur. Kutztown, Pa.: Pennsylvania German Society, 1999, 143.

“Jacob Oberholtzer” in Cory M. Amsler, ed., Bucks County Fraktur. Kutztown, Pa.: Pennsylvania German Society, 1999, 280-283; published as fig. 249 on p. 281.

Das kleine Davidische Psalterspiel Der Kinder Zions, Von alten und Neuen auserlesenen Geistes=Gesängen; Allen wahren Heyls=begierigen Säuglingen der Weisheit, Insonderheit aber Denen Gemeinden des HErrn, zum Dienst und Gebrauch mit Fleiß zusammen getragen, Und in gegenwärtig=beliebiger Form und Ordnung / Nebst einem doppelten darzu nützlichen und der Materien halben nöthigen Register, ans Licht gegeben. Germantown Gedruckt bey Christoph Saur, 1744.



Creation Place Town/Township: Region/County:Bucks
City/Town/Township:Hilltown School, Hilltown Township
State/Province:Pennsylvania
Creation Place Note:As per title page inscription

Image Dimensions Width: 9.6 cm
ShelfMark: FLP Borneman Ms. 48
Creator Name: Oberholtzer, Jacob, 1794-1880, attributed to - Decorator
Oberholtzer, Jacob, 1794-1880, attributed to - Scrivener

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