Item No: frkm117000
Title: Theodor Schulz Diary, 1785-1844
Laid paper; ink
Watermark: Postillon; Countermark: Imperial Eagle
[P. 1 in Schulz's pagination of Diary] 1785/ Augt 24 kahm ich nach Steinort zur Erlernung der Oeconomie / und Schreibereÿ beÿ dem H R Graf von Lehndorf in seiner Canzelleÿ/ Bekantschafft mit der Gemeine durch Br. Rhenius / Dieser Sommer und Herbst war ausserordentlich nass, im / Augt und Septtr ging fast kein Tag ohne Regen vorbei,/ daher war die Erndte äusserst beschwerlich, medio Augt / konte erst Korn zu mähen angefangen warden. Am 29tn Septtr schneiete es schon, obgleich Haber und Erbssen fast alles / draussen war. D. 22tn=Octtr war wieder ein zieml. hef= / tiges Schneegestöber, d 26=Octtr wurden erst die lezten Erb= / ssen eingefehren, und den 28= noch das letzte Korn gesät. / Ende Novbr wurde die Witterung hübsch angenehm, aber / mit zieml. Nachtfrősten da es oft 9 grad undter dem Gefrier= / Punkt war. Im Decbr frohr es anhaltend, so dass d 17ten=10, 18ten=12, 19ten=11, 22ten=14, 24ten=16, 31ten=15 grad unter d. Gefr P./ Daher wurde brav Rohr geschnitten auf dem Eise.
[P. 68 in Schulz's pagination of Diary, A paper fragment attached to bottom of page with a stick pin]
C. P.R. S. et off: / Zeige dieses Theodor Schultz, ein Schüler hiesiger Lat: Stadtsch [Lateinischen Stadtschule] ist allhiere DCa = 10 p. Fri [ ] A. / confirmirt u. DCa 11 zu h. Abend / mahl gewesen u. hat sich sehr in [ ] verhalten. Gerdauen d 12 Aug[ust] 1785/ Keber Senior
[P. 1 in Schulz’s pagination of Diary] On August 24, 1785 I arrived in Steinort where I began my clerkship and book-keeping studies in the Duke of Lehndorf’s chancery.* [I made] the acquaintance of the Moravian Brethren through Brother Rhenius.+ This summer and fall were exceptionally rainy. There was scarcely a day in August and September when it didn’t rain. It was quite difficult to harvest so that one could only start in the middle of August with the cutting of the grain. It already started to snow on the 29th of September notwithstanding that the oats and the pea crops still were in the fields. Again on the 22nd of October we had another rather violent snowstorm, and were only able to gather in the last of the peas on the 26th, and to plant the last of the winter grain by the 28th. In the end of November the weather became more pleasant, but there still were many evenings with frost, the temperature often going 9 degrees below the freezing point. In December it froze uninterruptedly, so that the temperature on the 17th was 10 o below the freezing point, on the 18th -12o, on the 19th -11o, on the 22nd -14o, on the 24th - 16o on the 31st -15o. Therefore, reeds were were diligently harvested on the ice.
[P. 68 in Schulz’s pagination of Diary], A paper fragment attached to bottom of the page with a stick pin] C.P.R.S. et off: This is to certify that Theodor Schultz was a student in the local Latin school here, has been confirmed and received Holy Communion, and has excelled and conducted himself in an exemplary manner. Gerdauen, 12 August 1785 by [Mr.] Keber, Senior.
* Ernst Ahasverus Heinrich, Duke of Lehndorf (1727-1811)
+ William Andrew Rhenius was inspector of the Duke’s chancery.
Commonplace book (Tagebuch)
Rare Book Department
Accompanying Materials Tipped In:
• p. 27 ~ A remedy to rid trees of caterpillars by applying tar to the trunk of the tree, and then depositing a bag of ants in the vicinity of the caterpillars. When the ants get hungry, being restricted by the tar and having no other food available, they’ll eat the caterpillars. Beneath this is a remedy for strong nosebleeds: Put blotting paper under the tongue.
• p. 61 ~ The watchword and text for 8/21/1800 (recto); the announcement of the Schulz’s first child, Elisabeth on 8/21/1800 (verso)
• p. 63 ~ The announcement of the Schulz’s second child, Caroline on 4/1/1802 (recto); the watchword and text for 4/1/1802 (verso)
• p. 73, upper item ~ The watchword and text for 3/19/1804 (recto); the announcement of the Schulz’s third child, Theodore on 3/19/1804 (verso)
• p. 73, lower item ~ 1784/85 List of names (recto); certificate for successful attendance in Latin School; confirmation, August 10, 1785; and first communion at Gerdauen, August 11,1785 by Samuel Jacob Keber, Pastor of Gerdauen Lutheran church, 1751–1791 (verso). This was the equivalent of a passport.
• p. 85 ~ The watchword and text for 2/7/1806 (recto); the announcement of the Schulz’s fourth child August Henry (verso)
• p. 101 ~ The watchword for 2/6/1808 and mention of birth of the Schulz’s fifth and sixth children, twins Charles and Edward (recto); the text for 2/6/1808 (verso).
• p. 139 ~ Newspaper clipping with two poems in English "The Boy’s Dream" and "The Week’s Work" (recto); a newspaper for sale ad for several published works (verso)
Quarter bound in leather over decorated paper boards.
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About Theodor Schultz
Theodor Schulz (1770-1855) was born in Gerdauen, East Prussia, the son of Gottfried Heinrich Schulz and Anna Christina, née August. He began his diary at age 15 when he first took up the study of estate management and accounting at the Steinort Estate of Ernst Ahasverus Heinrich, Duke of Lehndorf (1727-1811). Officially joining the Moravians in 1796, Schulz recorded his life and observations with the Unitas Fratrum, never failing to make a daily entry on weather conditions. He was a Moravian missionary to Suriname from 1800-1806, was active in Pennsylvania in many capacities up to 1821, and then was sent to North Carolina where he served as the administrator for the 100,000 acres of Moravian-owned land known as Wachovia, as well as business manager of Salem. He was married to Susanna Catharina Elisabeth, née Loesch ( 1771-1855), daughter of Jacob Loesch and Anna née Blum, with whom he had 6 children. He died August 4, 1850 in Salem in his 80th year.
Scope and Content:
This Diary provides a wealth of primary source material—focusing on both secular and religious events in Europe, Suriname, America—as seen through the eyes of Moravian missionary and administrator Theodor Schulz from 1785—1844.
Wheeler, Captain John
Borneman, Henry Stauffer, 1870-1955
Schultz, Theodor, 1770-1850
Arawak-German Vocabulary and Phrases Fragment, Ms. Ref. Nr.16 at the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pa.
William Algernon Churchill, Watermarks in Paper in Holland, England, France, etc. in the XVII and XVIII Centuries. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1935, Repr. 1967, 1985, and 1990.
Wilhelm Christian Genth, “ Bericht des Bruders Wilhelm Christian Genth von seiner Reise von seinem zeitherigen Posten an der Neukeer nach Paramaribo, im Jahr 1819,” in
Verzeichniß der Schriften der evangelischen Brüdergemeine. Gnadau: Christoph Ernst Senft, 1820, 652-663. Retrieved 12 December 2012 from Google Books at
Thomas L. Gravell and George Miller, A Catalogue of Foreign Watermaks Found on Paper Used in America, 1700-1835. New York: Garland, 1979.
Edward Heawood, Watermarks, Mainly of the 17th and 18th Centuries. Hilversum, The Netherlands: Paper Publications Society, 1950, Repr. 19157 and 1969.
John Cosens Ogden, An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799: With a Succinct History of the Society of United Brethren, Commonly Called Moravians. Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1805.
Theodor Schulz, Memoir, Imprint, Bethlehem, Ref # 0971 at the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pa.
__________ Memoir, Ms, Naz. Mem. Ref # 197-200 at the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pa.
Creation Place State/Province:
Richard Träger and Charlotte Träger-Große, Archivists: Dienerblätter, Biographische Übersichten von Personen, die im Dienst der Brüdergemeine standen. Herrnhut, Germany: Unitätsarchiv, n.d. [1999?], vol. Rh-Sch, [unpaginated].
Creation Place Note:Many towns in Europe and America are recorded in the diary.
State/Province:Europe and America
Creation Year (Single Year or Range Begin):
Image Dimensions Width:
FLP Borneman Ms. 117
Theodor Schulz - Author
Theodor Schulz - Scrivener