Carl F. Egelmann's Commonplace Book of Formulas Along with Notes on Sundry Mechanical and Scientific Topics

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Carl F. Egelmann's Commonplace Book of Formulas Along with Notes on Sundry Mechanical and Scientific Topics

Item Info

Item No: frkm098000
Title: Carl F. Egelmann's Commonplace Book of Formulas Along with Notes on Sundry Mechanical and Scientific Topics
Scripts/Text: cursive
Language: German
Physical Description: 44 leaves
Material: laid paper; ink
Watermark: Watermark: PB Location: center inner margins, gutter [see: leaves 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44].
Transcription:

[Leaf, r for recto=front; v for verso=back]

[10v]    Silberne Buch Staben ohne Silber auf Eisen oder Metal zu machen
[15v]    Vogel zu fangen
[16r]     Kupfer und Messing geschwind im Fluß zu zu bringen leid und geschmeidig zu machen
[18r]     Glaß weich zu machen wie Leder
[19r]     Stahl zu machen aus Eisen
[19v]    Eisen, Stahl Kupfer oder andere Metall zubereiten, daß man darin graben stechen und schneiden kan
[20r]     Edelsteine so weich zu machen, daß man es wie wie Käß schneiden kan.
[31v]    Den Rost füglich und geschwind von Eisen und polirten Stahl zu bringen
[34r]     Abbildung eines Haacken
[34v]  
[N.B. Measurements given are only approximate as there were no standard units of measurement for Zoll, Elle, Schuh in German-speaking lands during the 18th and 19th century].

   1. Der Haacken baum, 7 bis 8 Fuß lang, nach der | Größe der Ochsen, die ihn ziehen. Er ist von Eichen | oder birken holz, am dicken Ende 4 Zoll oder etwas drüber | und am dünnen 3 Zoll oder drüber dick [.] Das dicke Ende ist wie | man sieht bis auf eine Elle lang aber schräg, damit | das folgende Stück darauf gepaßt, und durch einen holzern Nagel | daran befestiget werden.

   2. Der Haackenkrümmel, ein krum gewachsenes Stück Holz, von | einer Spitze bis zur andern 3 ½ Fuß lang vom festesten | Holz das man hat [.]

   3. Das Haakenhöft 2 Fuß und 2 Zoll oder darüber lang wie | es an den Krümmel paßt: 3 bis 4 Zoll hoch und 3 Zoll dick. Bey (b) ist ein Loch eingestemmt in welchen das Sterz festge= | macht wird. Unten daran nagelt man eine | holzerne Sohle mit holzernen Nägeln, oder ein Stück alt Eisen | damit sich das Höft nicht zu bald abschleifet, das Höft muß von sehr festen Holz sein [.]

   4. Das Haackbret oder Keester, an welches das | Haack eisen befestiget wird. dieses richtet sich in der | Länge nach dem Krümmel und Höft. Die obere Angel | etwa 5/4 Zoll breit 2 Zoll dick und 8 Zoll lang, wird in den | Krümmel ein gekeilt. Der mitlere Theil ist etwa 1 ½ Fuß | lang und 10. bis 11. Zoll breit [.] Die untere Angel richtet | sich nach der Größe des Haackeisens, welches daran befestiget‚ wird und ist etwa 9 Zoll lang und 4 bis 4 1/2 Zoll breit. In

[35r]
   [4.] der Mitte ist das Haakbret etwa einen Zoll dick, und an | beÿden Ecken mit alten blech beschlagen. unten am Höft wird das | Haackbret entweder mit einer daran gehauenen Nüte in eine am Höft befindliche Falze eingepaßt, da man es den vermittelst | der Keile im Krümmel höher oder tiefer stellen kan; oder | es wird aufgenagelt. Das Haackbret muß von guten buchen Holz sein | und hält kaum ein Jahr aus [.]

   5) Der Sterz, ein meist gerades Stück Eichen holz unten | wo es in das Höft gesteckt wird 2 ½ Zoll breit und ¾ Zoll | dick. Die länge dieses breiten theils richtet sich nach der | weite des Krümmels vom Höft [.] Der übrige Theil ist 4 bis | 5. schuh lang, nach der Größe des Ackermans den dieser hält | den Sterz beständig mit einer Hand, und regieret den Haaken | damit.

   6) (a) Das Haackeisen ist meistens 3/8 achtel eines Zolles dick | sieht dreÿeckicht aus, und hat oben ein paar ein ge | bogene Haaken, welche an die untere Angel des | Haackbrets passen, daß man es an diese mit ein | paar holzernen Keilen befestigen kan, die Spitze des | Haackeisens läuft verdickt zu, und vorwärts gebogen | wie man beÿ der abbild und 6b. siehet. Es giebt auch | Haackeisen welche platt zugespitzt, und unten nur wenig | dicker sind, als in der Mitte. andere haben eine | viereckige lange Spitze von 4 Zoll, die von dem Haack | bret hervorragt, und besonders in strengen Boden | [35v] Dienste thut, oder wo tief geackert werden muß. | Die Länge eines Eisens mit scharfer Spitze ist 15 Zoll | und eines mit plater Spitze 12 Zoll. Die breite | hält, da wo es am breitesten ist, 12. und 14 Zoll.

[35v]
   7) Das Haacken Joch besteht aus dem Jochbaum a. wel | ches 6 Fuß lang und gegen 3. Zoll dick ist; dem Kehlholz b, und den zweÿ Joch schneiden c und 2 Vorsteckern oder Stücken d welche 4 Stücke jedes 2 fuß lang sind [.] | Der Jochbaum liegt bey den Ochsen auf den Halse, und wen | sie angespant werden so zieht man den Stücken beÿ d | und d heraus, welche leicht ein und aus gehen, und | schiebt ihn wieder herein, wen der Ochse den Hals doch dazwi= |schen hat. Durch die Weidenringe wird das Joch an | den Haackenbaum befestiget [.]

   8) Hier sind alle Theile des Haacken zusammengesetzt oder gefügt und | obige Zahlen wieder bey jedes Stück gesetzt, daß man es unter | scheiden kan. Die Ringe welche den Haakenbaum mit den | Krümmel verbinden sind auch von Weiden=Zweigen zusammen | gedreht. Nichts ist leichter als den Hacken zu stellen, daß er | flach oder tief Ackert. es kan geschehen durch das Haack= | eisen, indem man es höher oder tiefer anschlagt, oder durch | den Sterz, auch durch das Haackbret, und durch einen Keil den | man zwischen den Haackbaum und den Krümmel hineintreibet.

[36r]    Darm Saiten zu machen
[36v]    Holz bund oder in Coloren zu beitzen [formulas also on 37r,v]
[38r,v]  Wie man Spiegel machen soll
[39v]    Buch Drucker Dinte
[42v]    Die vier Elemente in einen Glase zu zeigen
[43v]    Schöne rothe Corallen zu machen
 


Translation:

[Leaf, r for recto=front; v for verso=back]

[10v]     How to Make Silver Letters without Silver on Iron or Metal
[15v]     How to Catch Birds
[16r]     How to Quickly Make Copper and Brass Workable, Pliant, and Malleable
[18r]     How to Make Glass Supple like Leather
[19r]     How to Make Steel from Iron
[19v]    How to Prepare Iron, Steel, Copper or Other Metals for Engraving and Cutting
[20r]     How to Make Precious Stones so Soft That One Can Cut Them Like Cheese
[31v]    How to Quickly and Wisely Remove Rust from Iron and Polished Steel
[34r]    Drawing of a Hoeing-Plow

[N.B. Measurements given are only approximate as there were no standard units of measurement for Zoll, Elle, Schuh in German-speaking lands during the 18th and 19th century].

[34 v]
   1. The hoeing-plow beam is 7 to 8 feet [Fuß] long, depending upon the size of the Oxen who pull it. It is made of either oak or birch, at the thick end ca. 4 inches [4 Zoll] or a little over, and the thin end ca. 3 inches [3 Zoll] or a little over.  The thick end is, as one sees, up to one Ell or about 2 feet long. It is tapered to fit on to the bent section of the beam, and fastened together with a wooden nail.

   2. The bent section, a piece of wood that took this shape while growing, is ca. 3 ½ feet [ 3 ½ Fuß] long from its one tip to the other. It should be of the sturdiest wood one can find.

   3. The plow sole is ca. 2 feet [ Fuß] 2 inches [Zoll] long or a little over where it fits on to the bent section; ca. 3 to 4 inches [Zoll] high; and ca. 3 inches [Zoll] thick. The plow tail or handle is fit into the opening created at (b). Beneath this one nails a wooden piece with wooden nails, or appends a piece of iron, so that the sole doesn’t wear away too quickly. The sole must be of very hard wood.

   4. The plow stilt to which the plow share is fastened fits lengthwise between the bent section of the plow beam and the plow sole. The upper portion is about 1.25 inches [Zoll] wide, 2 inches [Zoll] thick, and ca. 8 inches [Zoll] long, and is wedged into the bent section. The middle portion is about 1 ½ feet [ Fuß] long and 10 to 11 inches [Zoll] wide. The lower portion is sized according to the size of the plow share that is attached to it, and is about 9 inches long, and 4 to 4 ½ inches wide.

[35r]
The plow stilt is about 1 inch thick in the middle, and covered on both ends with old tin. By means of cutting a groove into the plow stilt, it can be inserted into a rabbet at the bottom of the plow sole, and adjusted up or down via a peg in the bent section of the plow beam. The plow stilt can also simply be nailed fast at the level desired. The stilt should be of the finest beech wood, and will rarely last longer than a year.

   5. The plow tail or handle is usually made of a straight piece of oak. Where it is inserted into the sole, it is ca. 2 ½ inches [Zoll] wide, and about ¾ of an inch [Zoll] thick. The length of this broad portion depends on the distance between the plow sole and the bent portion of the plow. The part of the plow tail above the bent section is about 4 to 5 feet [Schuh] depending on the height of the plowman, who by constantly holding the tail or handle in one hand, controls the hoeing-plow.

   6. (a) The plow share is mostly 3/8ths of an inch [Zoll] thick], is shaped like a triangle, and has several bent barbs that fit into the bottom of the plow sole, and can be made fast with a few wooden pegs. The plowshare body thickens at the bottom, and bends forwards as one can see in image 6b. There are also plowshares whose bodies are flat, and only slightly thicker at the bottom than in the middle. Others have a quadrilateral long head measuring 4 inches [Zoll] that protrude from the plow stilt, and are [35v] especially effective in hard-to-plow soils, or where a deep furrow is desired. The length of the of the plowshare with the sharp head is ca. 15 inches [Zoll] and at its widest point 12 inches [Zoll]; with the flat head about 12 inches [Zoll] and at its widest point 14 inches [Zoll].

[35v]
   7. The plow yoke consists of a yoke beam a. which is about 6 feet [Fuß] long and ca. 3 inches [Zoll] thick; the neck piece (b); the two yoke pieces (c); and two pins or pieces at (d) . The four latter pieces are all ca. 2 feet [Fuß] long. The yoke beam sits on the oxen’s necks. When harnessing, the pieces at (d) can be
be easily pulled out. Once the oxen are positioned, the pieces can be pushed back in. The yoke is connected by means of rings to the plow beam.

   8. Please refer to all of the parts as displayed by number in the preceding drawing.  The rings that connect the plow beam with its bent section are also bound together by willow shoots. There is nothing easier than adjusting the hoeing-plow to plow a shallow or deep furrow. The plowshare can be adjusted up or down, or via the plow tail or handle. It can also be accomplished by means of the plow stilt, or a peg can be driven in between the plow beam and the bent section.

[36r]     How to Make Gut Strings
[36v]    How to Stain Wood in Multiple Colors or Solid Colors
[38v,r]  How to Make a Mirror
[39v]    How to Make Printing Ink for Books
[42v]    How to Display the Four Elements in a Glas
[43v]    How to Make Beautiful Red Coral
 


Category: Commonplace book (Tagebuch)
Media Type: Manuscripts
Source: Rare Book Department
Notes:

Biographical Note:

Charles Frederick Egelmann (1782 -1860) was born in Neuenkirchen, Germany, and emigrated to this country in 1802, landing at Baltimore. He learned the trade of coach making, and earned his living as a coachmaker and chairmaker for some time. He then moved to Berks County, Pennsylvania where he taught for several years, and also acted as organist for a number of rural churches.  In the 1820's he moved to Reading and around 1830 began to work for the German newspaper "Der Readinger Democrat".  A man of decidedly many talents, he excelled in scientific enquiry, especially astronomy. For 43 years Egelmann furnished astronomical calculations for the principal almanacs published in America. As a copper-plate engraver, he produced birth certificates, views of local landscapes, and an instructional book "Deutsche & Englische Vorschriften für die Jugend" to teach children how to write in Fraktur, German script, and Roman script. It was produced in Reading in 1821.   He died at Reading, Nov. 30, 1860, aged nearly seventy-nine years.
 


Notes:

For Examples of C.F. Egelmann’s Engravings See:

FLP 130 Birth and Baptismal Certificate (Geburts und Taufschein) for [blank]
http://libwww.freelibrary.org/fraktur/detail.cfm?searchKey=2483854163&ItemID=frk00130

FLP 556 Birth and Baptismal Certificate (Geburts und Taufschein) for Cyrus Anspach
http://libwww.freelibrary.org/fraktur/detail.cfm?searchKey=2483854163&ItemID=frk00556

FLP 1139 Birth and Baptismal Certificate (Geburts und Taufschein) for Elisabeth Rothenberger
http://libwww.freelibrary.org/fraktur/detail.cfm?searchKey=2483854163&ItemID=frk01139
 


Notes:

Sewing: Two sections sewn through the fold, unsupported 


Notes:

Watermark:

P B in outline; Gravell, Miller & Walsh, 749.  Location: center inner margins, gutter. The position of the watermark helps determine that the format of the Ms is 4to. Please note that the Collection of the Delaware Historical Society, Wilmington, De has an example of P B, found in Box 29: The example was used in Sussex County De in the year 1806 (Gravell, Miller & Walsh, 163).

P B was used by Peter Bechtel and Peter Bechtel, Jr. By 1800, Peter Bechtel, a native of Germany, owned and operated two paper mills on Cresheim Creek near where it enters the Wissahickon Creek in Germantown, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Bechtel ordered his first mould from Nathan Sellers on April 5, 1797. Exactly one year later he ordered a second mould watermarked P B. He continued to buy moulds from Sellers annually. Bechtel’s son Peter Bechtel, Jr. eventually joined his father at the mill and, in February, 1820, Sellers made the first mould with the watermarks P B J. The last entry for Bechtel in Sellers’ journals is dated January 25, 1823. The mill apparently ceased operations about 1833 (Gravell, Miller & Walsh, 238-239).

 


Notes:


Scope and Content:

C. F. Egelmann included principally “how to” notes in his commonplace book, many of which pertained to his professional occupation as first a coach maker, and chairmaker and later as an engraver. Other entries reflect his personal interests. See below for transcriptions and translation of some of his “how to” instructions.
 


Notes:

Manuscript booklets (two).

Binding: Painted paper; pamphlet-bound. There are TWO booklets bound in one wrapper. They are each attached to the fold of the wrapper.  One is 24 leaves; the other is 20 leaves.

The painted paper wrapper itself is painted on the exterior on the front and reverse with four roundels of men and women wearing eighteenth-century clothing. Between the roundels are painted leaves and flowers. 


Provenance: Borneman, Henry Stauffer, 1870-1955
Egelmann, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1782-1860

Bibliography:

Encyclopedia Britannica A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1878, 9th ed., v. 5, 137. Retrieved 2 July 2013 from Google Books http://books.google.com/books?id=TiMfAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA137&lpg=PA137&dq=ooachmaking&source=bl&ots=RGAGc7F51L&sig=hWvFOyBfw0XqB0W7QnOSDnWcBDA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MtrWUe7CHu_k4APouICwCQ&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ooachmaking&f=false

Gravell, Thomas L., George Miller and Elizabeth Walsh. American Watermarks 1690-1835. New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2002, 163, 238, 239.

Meyer, Chr. Fr. Anleitung zu einem System zur Kenntniß und Verbesserung der freien technischen wie auch höheren Landwirthschaft nach neuerer praktisch= theoretischer Lehrart mit Hinweisung auf die besten Versuche der Engländer für alle Klassen von Staatsbürger. Berlin: In commission bei G. A. Lanke, 1805, v. 1, 306-310.  Retrieved 2 July 2013 from Google Books
http://books.google.com/books?id=VzQ7AAAAcAAJ&pg=RA1-PA108&lpg=RA1-PA108&dq=Hackenhöft&source=bl&ots=9mPWpf8AQ2&sig=64ey-uVGTu243dTStAKJcdzCfJ8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1unNUe7SEou00AGA5YGQCw&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Hackenhöft&f=false

Sommer, Frank H. “German Language Books, Periodicals & Manuscripts,” in Scott T. Swank, ed. Arts of the Pennsylvnia Germans. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. for The Henry Frtancis Du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1983, 277-279.

Stopp, Klaus. The Printed Birth and Baptismal Certificates of the German Americans. Mainz, Germany and East Berlin, Pa: Klaus Stopp, 1998, v. IV, 277-280.

Winkler, Louis. “Pennsylvania German Astronomy and Astrology VII: Carl Friederich Egelmann,” Pennsylvania Folklife 23, no. 1 (Autumn, 1973), 2-12.
 



Secondary Place Town/Township: Geographic Coverage Region/County:Baltimore
Geographic Coverage City/Town/Township:Baltimore
Geographic Coverage Note:Upon his arrival in America in 1802, C. F. Egelmann lived in Baltimore for several years.
Geographic Coverage State/Province:Maryland

Creation Place Town/Township: Region/County:Berks
City/Town/Township:Reading
State/Province:Pennsylvania

Creation Year (Single Year or Range Begin): ca. 1860
Image Dimensions Width: 19.5 cm x 16.4 cm
ShelfMark: FLP Borneman Ms. 98
Creator Name: Egelmann, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1782-1860 - Author
Egelmann, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1782-1860 - Decorator
Egelmann, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1782-1860 - Scrivener

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