Lubin Manufacturing Company records

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Repository
Free Library of Philadelphia: Rare Book Department
Call Number
FLP.THC.LUBIN
Creator
Lubin Manufacturing Company.
Lubin, Siegmund, d. 1923
S. Lubin (Firm : Philadelphia, Pa.).
Title
Lubin Manufacturing Company records
Date [inclusive]
1881-2006
Extent
9.6 Linear feet
Location note
All oversize objects can be found in the Lubin Manufacturing Company oversize drawer.
Language
English
Abstract
Siegmund Lubin (1851-1923) founded the Lubin Manufacturing Company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which, from 1895 to just before its collapse in 1916, grew to be one of the largest motion picture production companies in the world. His moviemaking empire started with the purchase of one film projector in 1895. Before long, it included a chain of movie theaters, multiple state-of-the-art production studios across the United States, hundreds of employees, numerous patents for recording and projecting equipment, and international movie distribution. Lubin's logo and motto, "Clear As A Bell," referred to the superior quality of his motion picture images. The Lubin Manufacturing Company records, 1881-2006, contains photographs, advertisements, business records, publicity materials, and artifacts documenting Siegmund Lubin’s short-lived career as one of America’s most successful film producers during the silent film era. While the collection does not include any full-length Lubin films, it is the largest collection of Lubin textual material in the world. There are seven series in the collection: “Scrapbooks,” “Printed Materials,” “Writings on Siegmund Lubin and his family,” “Corporate Information records,” “Lubin Collections at Free Library of Philadelphia,” and “Artifacts.”
Cite as
[Description and date of item], [Box and folder number], Lubin Manufacturing Company records, 1881-1984, Free Library of Philadelphia, Rare Book Department -- Theatre Collection.

Siegmund Lubin (1851-1923) founded the Lubin Manufacturing Company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which, from 1895 to just before its collapse in 1916, grew to be one of the largest motion picture production companies in the world. His moviemaking empire started with the purchase of one film projector in 1895. Before long, it included a chain of movie theaters, multiple state-of-the-art production studios across the United States, hundreds of employees, numerous patents for recording and projecting equipment, and international movie distribution. Lubin's logo and motto, "Clear As A Bell," referred to the superior quality of his motion picture images.

Siegmund Lubin was born in Germany in 1851. He was educated at Heidelberg University and, following in the footsteps of his father, earned his degree in ophthalmology. Lubin traveled to the United States, first in 1868, and then immigrated permanently in 1876. He lived in New Haven, Connecticut, where he met his wife, Annie Abrams. After they married, they traveled the United States together attending fairs and exhibitions where Lubin conducted eye examinations and sold eye glasses. In 1882, after the birth of their daughter Edith, the family moved to Philadelphia where Lubin opened an optical shop at 237 North Eighth Street. His family occupied the second floor apartment. Lubin continued to travel around the country to attend exhibitions, and it was a during a trip to New Orleans that he was first introduced to and became interested in the burgeoning field of motion picture recording.

In 1895, Lubin purchased a projecting "Phantoscope" from inventors C. Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. By 1896, Lubin had established his motion picture business, "Life Motion Pictures," using profits from his optical shop and the investments of family and friends. He soon developed his own projector, the "Cineograph," that he manufactured, marketed, and sold to the general public, along with other varieties of projectors and films.

Lubin was a savvy entrepreneur and a gifted marketer. According to authors Eckhardt and Kowall, Lubin was not wholly unique in his interest and efforts to manufacture projecting equipment and exhibit films, but it was his marketing ability that secured his success. They state that "Lubin pioneered the mass marketing of motion picture machinery and films with an eye toward creating a demand. In his imaginative use of advertising, his exploitation of the movies as a mass entertainment, and his painstaking creation of a network of exhibitors ready to buy whatever he could produce, Lubin opened up the field and set a pattern which others would quickly follow." In addition, Lubin both pirated films of other movie producers and produced his own, to both increase profits and keep up with demand for new films. He staged and filmed reenactments of famous boxing matches, battles of the Spanish-American War, and news stories. Initially, Lubin filmed in parks and in his own backyard; but around 1899, he built a more formal movie studio on the roof top of the building at 912 Arch Street in Philadelphia.

Early in his career, Lubin suffered numerous legal disputes with Thomas Edison, his primary rival, and other movie producers for patent infringement and pirating films. Though they battled in the courts for many years, their disagreements ultimately led to Edison and Lubin partnering in the formation of the Motion Picture Patents Company in 1908.

In 1910, Lubin built a large glass studio at 20th and Indiana Streets in North Philadelphia, which was dubbed by the press as "Lubinville." The studio was state-of-the-art and included an open tank under the floor that could be flooded to stage scenes involving large volumes of water as well as a cutting edge lighting system for use on cloudy days. There were also costume rooms, property storage rooms for set building, an editing room, and a cafeteria. Soon, Lubin had similar studios in the Philadelphia suburbs, including Betzwood, and Florida, California, and Arizona.

After the construction of his studio at 20th and Indiana, Lubin began to invest in the quality of his films and actors, for the first time. He recruited famous actresses and actors, such as Florence Lawrence, Ormi Hawley, and John Halliday, who brought greater acclaim to his productions.

Despite Lubin's efforts, by early 1912, the Lubin Manufacturing Company began to fall behind the more progressive members of the Motion Picture Patents Company and other independent producers of films in terms of overall quality and film length. The start of World War I, which destroyed his foreign markets, and an explosion in his Philadelphia studio in which thousands of feet of film were lost contributed to the company's decline. The dissolution of the Motion Picture Patents Company in an anti-trust suit added to the failure.

By 1915, Lubin was forced to begin consolidating his business and he closed the studios one-by-one. Despite efforts of one employee to move the company to California, the eastern branch of the Lubin Manufacturing Company would remain the dominant base of operations. As a last effort to save the company, Lubin attempted a merger with other leading production companies, known as the "Big Four": Vitagraph-Lubin-Selig-Essanay, Inc. Lubin also tried to re-release popular films as well as to sign more famous actors, such as Charlie Chaplin. However, none of these efforts changed the company's fate.

In 1916, Lubin's creditors seized control, and the company and all of its assets were sold. He went back to his work as an optician, and died in 1923.

Bibliography:

Eckhardt, Joseph P. and Linda Kowall. Peddler of Dreams: Siegmund Lubin and the Creation of the Motion Picture Industry, 1896-1916. National Museum of American Jewish History: Philadelphia, 1984.

The Lubin Manufacturing Company records contain photographs, advertisements, business records, publicity materials, and artifacts documenting Siegmund Lubin’s career as one of America’s most successful film producers during the silent film era. While the collection does not include any full-length Lubin films, it is the largest collection of Lubin textual material in the world. Researchers interested in silent film history, theater culture, the early film industry of the Philadelphia region, silent film actors, and the biography of Siegmund Lubin will find this collection to be of value. There are seven series in the collection: “Scrapbooks,” “Printed Materials,” “Photographs and Graphic Materials,” “Writings on Siegmund Lubin and his family,” “Corporate Information records,” “Lubin Collections at Free Library of Philadelphia,” and “Artifacts.”

The “Scrapbooks” series contains seven scrapbooks of newspaper and magazine clippings, playbills, advertisements, and flyers related to Lubin’s films and career spanning from December 1911 to April 1916. These scrapbooks have been separated from their original binding and placed in archival containers.

The “Printed Materials” series contains three subseries: "Advertisements," "Bulletins," and "Film Inventory." The “Advertisements” subseries includes pamphlets and posters advertising the release of Lubin films such as “The Great Divide” and “The Gods of Fate” from 1913 to 1915. The “Bulletins” subseries contains a run of the Lubin Films Bulletin, a publication written by Lubin that was dedicated to promoting his upcoming productions. The bulletins span from March 1913 to February 1916. The “Film Inventory” subseries contains printed catalogues of Lubin films from 1904 to 1907, typed lists of his films leading up to 1910, and a sheet of microfiche from 1990.

The “Photographs and Graphic Materials” series is divided into five subseries. The “Lantern slides and negatives” subseries contains lantern slides, both large and small, that were used in conjunction with his films. The “Portraits” subseries contains both head shots and action shots of actors and actresses involved in Lubin’s films. The “Stills of Lubin movies” subseries contains still images of many of his movies, including “Disaster movie,” “The Gods of Fate," and “Toonerville Trolley.” Some of these movies are identified; however the majority of stills in this subseries are unidentified. The “Studios” subseries contains images of several film studios owned by Lubin, including "Lubinville" which was located at 20th and Indiana streets in Philadelphia; Betzwood, Pennsylvania; and Portland, Maine. The “Theaters” subseries contains photographs of theaters owned by Lubin, as well as of theaters advertising his films. The majority of photographs in this series are not dated.

The “Writings on Siegmund Lubin and his family” series contains papers, articles, and notes on Lubin’s life and film technique dating from 1911 to 2006. Included in the series are two papers from 1911 and 1915 written on Lubin's efforts to create the ideal film production environment. Also in this series is a book about Siegmund Lubin titled The Beloved Adventurer, which was published in 1914. Researchers interested in Lubin’s biography may also want to consult the notes on the Lubin family compiled by Emily Lubin Lowry (Lubin’s daughter) that are housed in this series.

The “Corporate Information files” series contains correspondence, patent information, and receipts of the Lubin Manufacturing Company from 1907 to 1986. Researchers interested in Lubin’s role in film history should consult his patents for film inventions in this series.

The “Lubin Collections at the Free Library of Philadelphia” series contains information about the assembling of Lubin materials at the Free Library, as well as records related to its usage at other institutions. Several exhibitions about Lubin have been held at various institutions, including exhibitions at the Balch Institute, Montgomery County Community College, and the National Museum of American Jewish History. The records in this series document their usage.

The “Artifacts” series contains several items accompanying the Lubin collection at the Free Library. Some of these items include large film posters, Lubin’s car hood ornament, a Lubin Manufacturing Company paperweight, a film projector from 1905, and a bin containing Lubin film clips and documentaries.

The collection is arranged in seven series: I. Scrapbooks; II. Printed materials; III. Photographs and graphic materials; IV. Writings on Siegmund Lubin and his family; V. Corporate information records; VI. Lubin Collections at Free Library of Philadelphia; VII. Artifacts.

Series II. Printed materials contains four subseries: i. Advertisements; ii. Bulletins; iii. Film Inventory; iv. Newspaper clippings.

Series III. Photographs and graphic materials contains five subseries: i. Lantern slides and negatives; ii. Portraits; iii. Stills of Lubin movies; iv. Studios; v. Theaters.

Publication Information:
Free Library of Philadelphia: Rare Book Department, 2010.06.23
Finding Aid Author:
Finding aid prepared by Megan Good and Forrest Wright
Sponsor:
The processing of this collection was made possible through generous funding from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, administered through the Council on Library and Information Resources’ “Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives” Project.
Access Restrictions:

This collection is open for research use.

Use Restrictions:

The right of access to material does not imply the right of publication. Permission for reprinting, reproduction, or extensive quotation from the rare books, manuscripts, prints or drawings must be obtained through written application, stating the use to be made of the material.

The reader bears the responsibility for any possible infringement of copyright laws in the publication of such material.

A reproduction fee will be charged if the material is to be reproduced in a commercial publication.

Processing Information:

This collection was minimally processed in 2009-2011, as part of an experimental project conducted under the auspices of the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries to help eliminate processing backlog in Philadelphia repositories. A minimally processed collection is one processed at a less intensive rate than traditionally thought necessary to make a collection ready for use by researchers. When citing sources from this collection, researchers are advised to defer to folder titles provided in the finding aid rather than those provided on the physical folder.

Employing processing strategies outlined in Mark Greene's and Dennis Meissner's 2005 article, More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Processing Approaches to Deal With Late 20th-Century Collections, the project team tested the limits of minimal processing on collections of all types and ages, in 23 Philadelphia area repositories. A primary goal of the project, the team processed at an average rate of 2-3 hours per linear foot of records, a fraction of the time ordinarily reserved for the arrangement and description of collections. Among other time saving strategies, the project team did not extensively review the content of the collections, replace acidic folders or complete any preservation work.

Corporate Name(s)
  • Lubin Manufacturing Company.
  • S. Lubin (Firm : Philadelphia, Pa.).
Form/Genre(s)
  • Artifacts (object genre)
  • Biographies
  • Ephemera
  • Negatives (photographic)
  • Photographs
  • Scrapbooks
Geographic Name(s)
  • Philadelphia (Pa.)
Personal Name(s)
  • Lubin, Siegmund, d. 1923
Subject(s)
  • Inventions--United States--History
  • Motion picture actors and actresses
  • Motion picture industry
  • Silent films

Scrapbooks, 1911-1916 Box
Scrapbook 1: pages 1-84, 1911 December-1912 April 1
Scrapbook 1: pages 85-170, 1912 March-1912 June 2
Scrapbook 1: pages 171-256, 1912 June-1912 September 3
Scrapbook 2: pages 1-100, 1912 September-1912 December 4
Scrapbook 2: pages 101-200, 1912 December-1913 March 5
Scrapbook 2: pages 201-302, 1913 March-1913 June 6
Scrapbook 3: pages 1-76, 1913 June-1913 July 7
Scrapbook 3: pages 77-180, 1913 July-1913 October 8
Scrapbook 3: pages 181-256, 1913 November-1914 January 9
Scrapbook 4: pages 1-100, 1914 January-1914 March 10
Scrapbook 4: pages 101-194, 1914 March-1914 June 11
Scrapbook 4: pages 195-302, 1914 June-1914 August 12
Scrapbook 5: pages 1-100, 1914 August-1914 October 13
Scrapbook 5: pages 101-198, 1914 October-1914 November 14
Scrapbook 6: pages 1-81, 1915 June - 1915 September 15
Scrapbook 6: pages 82-140, 1915 September-1915 October 16
Scrapbook 6: pages 141-207, 1915 October-1915 November 17
Scrapbook 7: pages 1-53a, 1916 January-1916 February 18
Scrapbook 7: pages 54-106a, 1916 January-1916 March 19
Scrapbook 7: pages 107-159, 1916 March-1916 April 20

Printed materials, 1902-1996
Advertising, 1913-1915 Box Folder Oversize
Advertisements of Lubin films, 1913-1915 21
1
 
Advertisements of "The Great Divide" and "The Gods of Fate", circa 1913-1915     1
Bulletins, 1913 March - 1916 February Box Folder Oversize
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 March 21
2
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 April 21
3
2
2
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 May 21
4
3
2
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 June 21
5
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 July 21
6
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 August 21
7
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 September 21
8
2
Brockliss Bulletin, 1913 September 13 21
9
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 October 21
10
2
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 November 28 21
11
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1913 December 21
12
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 January 22
1
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 February 22
2
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 March 22
3
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 April 29 22
4
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 May 22
5
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 June 30 22
6
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 July 22
7
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 August 22
8
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 September 30 22
9
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 October 30 22
10
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 November 28 22
11
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 December 30 22
12
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 January 28 22
13
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 February 24 22
14
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 March 26 22
15
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 April 21 22
16
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 May 17 22
17
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 June 11 22
18
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 July 28 22
19
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 August 11 22
20
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 August 25 22
21
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 September 22
22
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 October 22
23
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 November 22
24
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1915 December 20 22
25
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1916 January 17 22
26
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, 1916 February 22
27
 
Lubin Films Bulletin, undated 22
28
 
Negative of cover of Lubin Films Bulletin, 1914 January 22
29
 
Film inventory, 1904-1990 Box Folder
Catalogs, 1904-1907 23
1
List of Lubin Films, 1909 23
2
List of Lubin Films, before 1910 23
3
Microfiche, 1990 24
1
Newspaper clippings regarding Siegmund Lubin and company, 1902-1996 Box Folder Oversize
News Clippings, 1916-1996 24
2
 
News Clippings and Ephemera, 1914-1963 24
3
 
Newspaper clippings (photocopies), 1902-1984 24
4
 
Translation of The Jewish World newspaper, 1914 March 6 24
5
 
Miscellaneous Fragments, undated     9

Photographs and graphic materials
Lantern slides and negatives, undated Box Folder Oversize
Unidentified slide, undated 24
6
 
Assorted slides, undated 25
   
Large slides, undated     3
Negative, undated 26
1
 
Portraits, 1881-1944 Box Folder Oversize
Aitken, Spottiswoode, undated 26
2
 
Arthur, Charles, undated 26
3
 
Bennison, Louis, undated 26
4
 
Brandt, Charles, undated 26
5
 
Briscoe, Lotte, undated 26
6
 
Buckley, Mae, undated 26
7
 
Caines, Eleanor, undated 26
8
 
Camera men, undated 26
9
 
Clayton, Ethel, 1915 26
10
 
Cooper, Bill, undated 26
11
 
D'Arcy, Hugh, undated 26
12
 
Dimmick, Benjamin, circa 1913 26
13
 
Dunn, Eleanor, 1913-1914 26
14
 
Eddy, Helen, undated 26
15
 
Faust, Martin J., undated 26
16
 
Fielding, Romaine, undated 27
1
 
Hackett, Florence, undated 27
2
 
Halliday, John, undated 27
3
 
Hawley, Ormi, undated 27
4
 
Hotely, Mae, undated 27
5
 
Huff, Justina, undated 27
6
 
Huff, Louisa, undated 27
7-8
 
Johnson, Arthur, undated 27
9
 
Johnson, Buster, undated 27
10
 
Jones, Edgar, undated 27
11
 
King, Henry, undated 27
12
 
Lamon, Isabel, undated 27
13
 
Lang, Peter, undated 27
14
 
Lawrence, Florence, 1911-1912 27
15
 
Louis, William, undated 27
16
 
Lowry, Emily Lubin, 1922-1944 27
17
 
Lowry, Ira M., undated 28
1
 
Luby, Edna, undated 28
2
 
Lubin, Anne, 1882-1913 28
3
 
Lubin, Edith, 1912-1913 28
4-5
 
Lubin, Siegmund, 1881-1921 28
6
4
Metcalfe, Earl, undated 28
7
 
Mitchell, Howard, undated 28
8
 
Myers, Harry, undated 28
9
 
Nelson, Jennie, undated 28
10
 
Oliver, Guy, undated 28
11
 
Parsons, Bill, undated 28
12
 
Payne, Edna, undated 28
13
 
Reynolds, Noah, undated 28
14
 
Rigney, John, undated 28
15
 
Simspon, Russell, undated 28
16
 
Stuart, Julia, undated 28
17
 
Reehm, George, undated 28
18
 
Simmons, Edward L., undated 28
19
 
Smiley, Joseph, undated 28
20
 
Steele, George, undated 28
21
 
Theby, Rosemary, undated 28
22
 
Walters, Mrs. George W., undated 28
23
 
Wangemann, Richard, undated 28
24
 
Webb, Harry, undated 28
25
 
White, Edith, 1926 28
26
 
Williams, Clara, undated 28
27
 
Unidentified, undated 29
28
1-3
28
 
Stills of Lubin movies, 1912-1915 Box Folder Oversize
"A Road Called Straight", undated 29
4
 
"All for Old Ireland", 1915 July 10 29
5
 
Stills of "Corner of the Kennels," "To the Lambs," "Tillie's Tomato Surprise," and "Bob Builds a Booth", undated 29
6
 
"Disaster Movie", 1913 November 29
7
 
"Disaster Movie", undated 29
8
 
"The Gods of Fate", undated 29
9
 
"The Harmless One", undated 29
10
 
"The Man of Him", undated 30
1
 
"His Partner", undated 30
2
 
"Toonerville Trolley", undated 30
3-5
 
"Wilson's Atonement" and "The Man of Him", undated 30
6
 
"The Wooden Bowl", 1912 30
7
 
May family and various movie stills, undated 30
8
 
Unidentified street corner, undated 30
9
 
Train wreck, undated 30
10
 
Movie filmed in Yeadon, Pennsylvania and Delaware City, Delaware, 1912 30
11
 
Stills of various movie sets, undated 31-36
   
Stills of various movie sets, undated     5
Studios, 1914-1916 Box Folder Oversize
Studio at 20th and Indiana Street during operation and after, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, undated 37
1
 
Betzwood Cowboy Scenes, undated 37
2
 
Betzwood Employees, 1914-1916 37
3
 
Betzwood Set C, undated 37
4-5
 
Betzwood Sets-Studio at Betzwood, Pennsylvania, undated 37
6
 
Betzwood Sets-Studio at Betzwood, Pennsylvania, undated 38
1-3
 
Betzwood Sets-Studio at Betzwood, Pennsylvania, undated     6
Betzwood Sets-Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, undated 38
4
 
Betzwood Sets-Studio at Portland, Maine, undated 38
5
 
Miscellaneous photographs, undated 39
1
 
Theaters Box Folder
Photocopies of photographs of Lubin theaters (originals located at the Library Company of Philadelphia), 1905-1907 38
6
Postcard and photograph of Lubin Theaters (especially Lubin and BijouTheatres in Richmond, Virginia and a fire-damaged theater), 1899-1911, undated 38
7

Writings on Siegmund Lubin and his family, 1911-2006 Box Folder Oversize
Paper on "Artificial Light versus Sunlight for Making Moving Picture Films", 1911 February 17 39
2
 
Book: The Beloved Adventurer, 1914 39
3
 
Paper on "Conditioning the Air in a Moving Picture Laboratory", 1915 February 39
4
 
Today Magazine: "How Philadelphia Lost its Big Chance to be Hollywood", 1980 October 12     8
Oral History Project: "Long, Long Ago", 1985 Spring 40
1
 
Assorted publications, 1986-2006 40
2
 
Notes on the Lubin family by Emily Lubin Lowry, undated 40
3
 
Typescripts on Lubin Manufacturing Company, undated 40
4
 

Corporate information files, 1907-1986 Box Folder
Correspondence, 1907-1922 41
1
Patents for film inventions, 1915-1986 41
2
Photographs of Patent Company meeting, 1908 41
3
Receipts, 1907-1908 41
4

Lubin collection at Free Library of Philadelphia and others Box Folder
Correspondence, 1949-1998 41
5-6
Exhibition at The Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies, 1994 41
7
Exhibition at Montgomery County Community College, 1989-1990 41
8
Exhibition at National Museum of American Jewish History, 1984 41
9
Inventory and policy, 1982-1984, 1991, undated 41
10
Artifacts Box Object
Poster: Lubin presents "Self-Convicted" in two reels, undated   1
Lubin Film Company projector, 1905   2
Lubin Trademark Bell car hood ornament, undated   3
Paperweight with Lubin Film Company trademark, undated   4
Exhibition poster advertising Lubin collection, undated   5
Lubin film clips
The box contains reels of: Lubin promotional music (2); Lubin cowboys (2); Reel 3 (2); Lubin Film clips (2); Reel 8 (2); Reel 7; Reel 9 (2); Brening; Partner; Melies Etc,; Patents Company and Scenes from "A Girl's Folly" and "A Partner to Providence;" Reel 5 (2); Primetime; Folly; "A Girl's Folly;" 20th and Indiana and Betzwood Cowboys; Joe/Linda; Colbin; Fire; Scrapbook; Preached; Flag; Goldsmith; Gym O; Cowboy; Hackett; Hackett interview. There are also five unidentified reels.
The box also contains VHS tapes of: Behind-the-Scenes (1986); Clear as a Bell: The Lubin Story (1985); Before Hollywood: The Betzwood Story (undated).
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