Laika was a female sled dog who was shot into space inside the Soviet satellite Sputnik II on November 3, 1957. She died in orbit.
Source: Famous First Facts, International Edition, 2000, p.397, Steven Anzovin, 031.02 An99f
Dr. Sally K. Ride of Stanford, CA was the first American woman astronaut. She served as a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was launched on June 18, 1983. Valentina V. Tereshkova of the Soviet Union became the first woman from any country to fly in space on June 16, 1963.
Mae C. Jemison, from Chicago, IL, was the first African American woman astronaut. On September 12, 1992 she boarded the space shuttle Endeavor.
Source: Black Firsts: 4,000 Ground-Breaking and Pioneering Historical Events, 2003, p.621-622, Jessie Carney Smith, 909.0496 SM61B
Neil Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon, on July 20, 1969 at 10:56 PM EDT.
Source: Famous First Facts: A Record of First Happenings, Discoveries, and Inventions in American History, 1997, p.529, Joseph Nathan Kane, 031.02 K132F 5th ED
The Wistar Institute is the first biological research institute in the United States, which was founded in 1891. It is currently located at 3601 Spruce Street in Philadelphia.
Source: Bulletin Almanac and Yearbook, 1976, p.112, 917.481 B87 1976. See also the Wistar Institute website.
In 1832, Willis Eye Hospital was founded in Philadelphia. It was the first ophthalmology hospital in the country. Willis Eye Hospital played an important role in establishing ophthalmology as a separate medical specialty.
Source: Philly Firsts: The Famous, Infamous, and Quirky of the City of Brotherly Love, 1999, p.101, Janice L. Booker, 974.811 B644P